Arminius Numismatics

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Galerie > Ancient World > Ancient India (til ca.1550 AD.) > India, Delhi Sultanate
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India, Delhi sultanate, 1329-32 AD., Muhammad Shah III, Delhi mint, bronze 50 jitals, D-403.

India, Delhi sultanate, Muhammad (bin Tughluq) Shah III (AH 725-752 / 1325-1351 AD.), Takhgat Delhi mint, AH 730-2 (1329-32 AD.),
50 Jitals / "black Tanka" (19 mm / 7,52 g), bronze, axes irregular alignment ↑<- (ca. 230°), forced token currency, two holing attempts, one successful,
Obv.: Man ata'a al sultan fa-qad ata'a al-rahman (Persian inscription: "he who obeyed the sultan obeyed the Merciful one"), date and mint in margins, e.g.: dar takhtgah dehli sal bar hafsad si (Struck at Takhtgah Dehli in sevenhundred-thirty...) .
Rev.: Muhr-shod tankah ra'ij dar rozgar bandah amidvar muhammad tughluq (Persian legends: "sealed as a tankah current in the reign of the slave, hopeful (of grace) Muhammed Tughluq").
Mitch. 2597 ; Rajgor 1138 ; Goron/Goenka "The Coins of the Indian Sultanates" D-403 .
thanks to Arthur Needham and Tariq ("Ansari") for ID help ; http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,14224

In 1327 Mohamed III introduced a monetary reform, part of which included an issue of a so-called "forced currency" - bronze pieces that had a government-set value of silver, minted between 730 AH and 732 AH. There is no possibility to differenciate the issues of the Royal Mint from those contemporary imitations fabricated by local copper smiths.
Edward Thomas (The Chronicals of the Pathan Kings of Dehli, p. 245-246):
"His Majesty's officers of the mint worked with precisely the same tools as the ordinary workman, and operated upon a metal, so to say, universally available. There was no special machinery to mark the difference of the fabric of the Royal Mint and the handy-work of the moderately skilled artisan. Unlike the precautions taken to prevent the imitation of the Chinese paper notes, there was positively no check upon the authenticity of the copper token, and no limit to the power of production by the masses at large. Under such circumstances it is only strange that the new currency should have run so long a course as the three consecutive years (or one full year with portions of the first and the last), the record of which we find on their surfaces. As already stated, when there remained no question as to the failure of the scheme, Muhammad bin Tughlak, unwillingly, perhaps, but honestly, attempted to meet the difficulty, by authorizing the reception of the copper tokens at the treasury and their exchange for full money equivalents. No scrutiny, had such been effectively practicable, was enjoined against illicit fabrications; and the sums actually exchanged may be estimated by the mounds upon mounds of brass coins which were heaped up as mere rubbish in the Fort of Tughlakabad (Dehli), where they were still to be seen a century later, in the reign of Mubarak Shah II. It is clear that, if good money was paid for all those tokens, Muhammad bin Tughlak's temporary loan, extracted from his own subjects, must have been repaid at a more than Oriental rate of interest, though possibly, in very many instances, compensation reached parties but little entitled to it."

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Dateiname:10x10-07.jpg
Name des Albums:Arminius / India, Delhi Sultanate
Schlüsselwörter:India / Delhi / Sultanate / Muhammad / Shah_III / Tughluq / Jitals / black_Tanka
Dateigröße:117 KB
Hinzugefügt am:26. Mai 2012
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