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Galerie > Medieval to Contemporary > Europe > Portugal and the Portuguese Empire > Portugal and the Portuguese Empire before 1500
1248-1279 AD., Portugal, Alfonso III., Dinheiro.
Portugal, Alfonso III., 1248-1279 AD., 
Æ Dinheiro (14-16 mm / 0,48 g), 
Obv.: A[LF]ONSVS RЄX , around cross, crescents and stars in the quarters (crescent-star-crescent-star)  -  Cruz equilateral CECE (Crescente-Estrela-Crescente-Estrela). 
Rev.:  [PO - RT] - VG - AL , arms of Portugal -- 5 escudetes com besantes aleatórios.
 . 

Afonso III the Bolognian (Port. o Bolonhês) or the Brave (Port. o Bravo), the fifth King of Portugal (May 5, 1210 in Coimbra – February 16, 1279 in Alcobaça, Coimbra or Lisbon) and the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, since 1249. He was the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal and his wife, Urraca, princess of Castile; he succeeded his brother, King Sancho II of Portugal on 4 January 1248.
As the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal, Afonso was not expected to inherit the throne, which was destined to go to his elder brother Sancho. He lived mostly in France, where he married Matilda, the heiress of Boulogne, in 1238, thereby becoming Count of Boulogne. In 1246, conflicts between his brother, the king, and the church became unbearable. Pope Innocent IV then ordered Sancho II to be removed from the throne and be replaced by the Count of Boulogne. Afonso, of course, did not refuse the papal order and marched to Portugal. Since Sancho was not a popular king, the order was not hard to enforce; he was exiled to Castile and Afonso III became king in 1248 after his brother's death. To ascend the throne, he abdicated from the county of Boulogne and later (1253) divorced Matilda.
Determined not to commit the same mistakes as his brother, Afonso III paid special attention to what the middle class, composed of merchants and small land owners, had to say. In 1254, in the city of Leiria, he held the first session of the Cortes, a general assembly comprising the nobility, the middle class and representatives of all municipalities. He also made laws intended to restrain the upper classes from abusing the least favoured part of the population. Remembered as a notable administrator, Afonso III founded several towns, granted the title of city to many others and reorganized public administration.
This King showed extraordinay vision for that time. Humanists and Progessists measures taken during his kingship includes: The representatives of the people were for the first time included in the governance, besides the nobility and clergy; The end of preventive arrests, all arrests by the police had to be first presented to a judge to determine the detention measure, monetary economy measures, such as the negotiation with the mercators a extraordinary taxation instead of the typical devalorization of money. The first measures of a state towards laicity, including taxation of the catolic church wealth. This leads to his excomunication by the holy see. This precipitated his death and his son Dom Dinis prematurelly rise to the throne with only 18 years old.
Secure on the throne, Afonso III then proceeded to make war with the Muslim communities that still thrived in the south. In his reign the Algarve became part of the kingdom, following the capture of Faro—Portugal thus becoming the first Iberian kingdom to complete its Reconquista.
Following his success against the Moors, Afonso III had to deal with a political situation arising from the borders with Castile. The neighbouring kingdom considered that the newly acquired lands of the Algarve should be Castilian, not Portuguese, which led to a series of wars between the two kingdoms. Finally, in 1267, a treaty was signed in Badajoz, determining that the southern border between Castile and Portugal should be the River Guadiana, as it is today.
Schlüsselwörter: Portugal Alfonso Dinheiro Cross Crescents Stars Arms

1248-1279 AD., Portugal, Alfonso III., Dinheiro.

Portugal, Alfonso III., 1248-1279 AD.,
Æ Dinheiro (14-16 mm / 0,48 g),
Obv.: A[LF]ONSVS RЄX , around cross, crescents and stars in the quarters (crescent-star-crescent-star) - Cruz equilateral CECE (Crescente-Estrela-Crescente-Estrela).
Rev.: [PO - RT] - VG - AL , arms of Portugal -- 5 escudetes com besantes aleatórios.
.

Afonso III the Bolognian (Port. o Bolonhês) or the Brave (Port. o Bravo), the fifth King of Portugal (May 5, 1210 in Coimbra – February 16, 1279 in Alcobaça, Coimbra or Lisbon) and the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, since 1249. He was the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal and his wife, Urraca, princess of Castile; he succeeded his brother, King Sancho II of Portugal on 4 January 1248.
As the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal, Afonso was not expected to inherit the throne, which was destined to go to his elder brother Sancho. He lived mostly in France, where he married Matilda, the heiress of Boulogne, in 1238, thereby becoming Count of Boulogne. In 1246, conflicts between his brother, the king, and the church became unbearable. Pope Innocent IV then ordered Sancho II to be removed from the throne and be replaced by the Count of Boulogne. Afonso, of course, did not refuse the papal order and marched to Portugal. Since Sancho was not a popular king, the order was not hard to enforce; he was exiled to Castile and Afonso III became king in 1248 after his brother's death. To ascend the throne, he abdicated from the county of Boulogne and later (1253) divorced Matilda.
Determined not to commit the same mistakes as his brother, Afonso III paid special attention to what the middle class, composed of merchants and small land owners, had to say. In 1254, in the city of Leiria, he held the first session of the Cortes, a general assembly comprising the nobility, the middle class and representatives of all municipalities. He also made laws intended to restrain the upper classes from abusing the least favoured part of the population. Remembered as a notable administrator, Afonso III founded several towns, granted the title of city to many others and reorganized public administration.
This King showed extraordinay vision for that time. Humanists and Progessists measures taken during his kingship includes: The representatives of the people were for the first time included in the governance, besides the nobility and clergy; The end of preventive arrests, all arrests by the police had to be first presented to a judge to determine the detention measure, monetary economy measures, such as the negotiation with the mercators a extraordinary taxation instead of the typical devalorization of money. The first measures of a state towards laicity, including taxation of the catolic church wealth. This leads to his excomunication by the holy see. This precipitated his death and his son Dom Dinis prematurelly rise to the throne with only 18 years old.
Secure on the throne, Afonso III then proceeded to make war with the Muslim communities that still thrived in the south. In his reign the Algarve became part of the kingdom, following the capture of Faro—Portugal thus becoming the first Iberian kingdom to complete its Reconquista.
Following his success against the Moors, Afonso III had to deal with a political situation arising from the borders with Castile. The neighbouring kingdom considered that the newly acquired lands of the Algarve should be Castilian, not Portuguese, which led to a series of wars between the two kingdoms. Finally, in 1267, a treaty was signed in Badajoz, determining that the southern border between Castile and Portugal should be the River Guadiana, as it is today.

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Datei-Information
Dateiname:bMAuNZ71.jpg
Name des Albums:Arminius / Portugal and the Portuguese Empire before 1500
Schlüsselwörter:Portugal / Alfonso / Dinheiro / Cross / Crescents / Stars / Arms
Dateigröße:103 KB
Hinzugefügt am:%02. %735 %2008
Abmessungen:1024 x 503 Pixel
Angezeigt:78 mal
URL:http://www.arminius-numismatics.com/coppermine1414/cpg15x/displayimage.php?pid=2551
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